Last week saw Lansing take up bills for a â€œHistoric District Modernization Actâ€, as well as CityLab weigh in on historic districtsâ€™ role in driving up housing prices and limiting affordability. In this context, we can revisit the role of local historic districts in placemaking.Â (Spoiler: theyâ€™re an important tool!)
Since about 1970, when the Federal and state historic preservation statutes were enacted, 78 cities around Michigan have created districts to support their historic neighborhoods. These efforts provided property owners in those areas a stable and predictable context for investment, often allowing blighted or long-neglected areas to become, over time, some of our communitiesâ€™ most sought-after neighborhoods. The combination of expertise and oversight provided by Historic District Commissions and staff, as well as Federal tax credits (and state credits, until recently), laid the foundations for these efforts.
Iâ€™ve previously written on Grand Rapidsâ€™ Heritage Hill and East Hills neighborhoods, which offer great examples of how historic districts support placemaking.Â In 1992, residents of the Cherry Hill area of the east hills began the process of forming a district as part of their fight against blight, crime, and absentee property owners. A walk through the neighborhood today, just over two decades later, shows how the district has contributed to creating a great neighborhood that anchors the Wealthy Street and Cherry Street commercial districts. While work definitely remains to be done, many of the homes have been brought back from the brink of destruction by fire or neglect, creating the physical fabric that supports close relationships between neighbors.
The significance is not just aesthetic, but economic. During the real estate roller coaster of the last 10 years, Zillow reports this neighborhoodâ€™s average home value has increased by 25%, while the average home value in Grand Rapids as a whole remains 7% below 2006 levels. In the Fairmount Square portion of the East Hillsâ€”where another historic district was established in 1999, following Cherry Hillâ€™s exampleâ€”the economics were strong enough to support the construction of 35 condo townhomes during the middle of the recession, in coordination with the rehabilitation of the adjacent DA Blodgett Home for Children. The success of these neighborhoods for both residents and businesses show how historic districts support economic development effortsâ€”in buildings both new and old.
The Grand Rapids examples also show the weakness in CityLabâ€™s critique.Â While that piece targets local historic districts as tools to exclude lower-income residentsâ€”and uses an image from the Heritage Hill district to illustrate â€œpretty houseâ€ preservationâ€”that neighborhood hosts Grand Rapidsâ€™ densest and most diverse set of housing options.Â The home pictured sits on a block whose housing ranges from beautiful historic mansions to modest homes on postage stamp lots, alongside a mix of duplexes, townhomes, carriage barn apartments, and 8 story apartment buildings: hardly the exclusive enclave of single-family homes the author describes.
In this case, as in many of our cities, historic districts include and protect housing in a broad range of styles and price points. And, as the Fairmount Square development shows, can incorporate new development as well. While local districts can be used to reinforce exclusive zoning, they donâ€™t necessarily do so, nor are they as much of a factor as single-family zoning standards, minimum lot sizes, or parking requirements. And to the CityLab concern about historic districts boosting property values, well, that was the hope of the Cherry Hill residents trying to build a neighborhoodâ€”bringing property values from the rock bottom of abandonment back up to something near the city and statewide averages.
In many cases, our historic districts are pre-war neighborhoods that look a lot like the types of areas that weâ€™ve talked about in our strategic placemaking efforts: small commercial areas with apartments (or the possibility of them) above business uses that front on the sidewalk, and neighborhoods of homes, apartment houses, and small apartment buildings adjacent.Â Many of the buzzwords we use in our placemaking workâ€”â€œcompact, walkable mixed-use districts with high connectivity and missing middle housing optionsâ€ (huh?)â€”are just a way of saying, â€œletâ€™s build great new neighborhoods that look and function like these great old neighborhoods.â€
In older communities across Michigan, taking care of the good places we already have is the easiest starting point for placemakingâ€”and historic districts are an important foundation for that work.